WRG Report Summary
V. Shoshone-Paiute Tribes (Duck Valley Reservation)
  1. Background Research Draft Report "Preliminary Report on
    Southern Idaho Physical Features" (Volume 1 of 3)
    - 255 pp.
    SAIC Subcontract No. 14-960067-75
    SAIC Subproject No. 01-0203-34-3479-000 7209
    Date: May 4, 1995

    This first volume of a four part review and critical evaluation of background research concerns climate, physiography, Duck Valley Reservation demographics, Duck Valley Reservation land use, water resources, soils and vegetation, and wildlife of the Duck Valley Reservation, and provides an extensive bibliography. It also contains fifteen appendices containing various supporting documents, maps, reports, charts, and tables on which parts of our review of background research depend.

  2. Background Research Draft Report "Preliminary Report on
    Southern Idaho Prehistory" (Volume 2 of 3)
    - 350 pp.
    SAIC Subcontract No. 14-960067-75
    SAIC Subproject No. 01-0203-34-3479-000 7209
    Date: May 4, 1995

    This second volume of a four part review and critical evaluation of background research concerns prehistory, including the history of archaeology in Southern Idaho, the prehistoric environment, artifact chronology, projectile points, in-situ theories of Numic prehistory, linguistic theories, pottery, basketry, and an assessment of the culture-historical approach to prehistory. It also provides an extensive bibliography. There are nine appendices containing various supporting documents, maps, reports, charts, and tables on which parts of our review of this background research depend.

  3. Background Research Draft Report "Preliminary Report on Southern Idaho Ethnography and History" (Volume 3 of 3 - Part A) - 335 pp.
    SAIC Subcontract No. 14-960067-75
    SAIC Subproject No. 01-0203-34-3479-000 7209
    Date: May 4, 1995

    This third volume of a four part review and critical evaluation of background research concerns ethnography and history including Northern Paiute ethnography, ethnohistory, and a brief sketch of background materials concerning the recent history of the Tribes of Southern Idaho. Information is included on Tribal territories, subsistence, social and political organization, marriage and kinship, language, material culture, and religion. The materials concerning recent Tribal history include information on exploration and the fur trade, missionaries and immigrants, predatory bands, military action, and negotiations pertaining to the Duck Valley Indian Reservation. This third volume also contains an extensive bibliography and seven appendices (A-G) containing various supporting documents and other information.

  4. Background Research Draft Report "Preliminary Report on Southern Idaho Ethnography and History" (Volume 3 of 3 - Part B) - 335 pp.
    SAIC Subcontract No. 14-960067-75
    SAIC Subproject No. 01-0203-34-3479-000 7209
    Date: May 4, 1995

    This fourth volume of a four part review and critical evaluation of background research is a continuation of the preceding third volume concerning background research on the ethnography and history of Southern Idaho. It consists of seven additional appendices (H-N) containing further supporting documents and information describing the available research on ethnography and ethnohistory of Southern Idaho. General conclusions reached in this review of background research concern 1) what is known, 2) what is known but controversial, and 3) what is still to be discovered by research. Particularly problematic for the Shoshone-Paiute is the widespread, uncritical acceptance of a "recent arrival" hypothesis for the Numic peoples of the Northern Great Basin. Other problems include a virtual vacuum concerning important aspects of the ethnography, history and current socioeconomic conditions of the Shoshone-Paiute of the Duck Valley Indian Reservation. For example, there is little information concerning the religion, subsistence practices, kinship and family patterns, or relationships to the natural and cultural resources of their homeland. These and other shortcomings in prior research enabled us to reach the following decisions concerning research priorities: 1) supplement the ethnographic and ethnohistoric information; 2) identify culturally significant features and reliance on the natural and cultural environment; 3) prepare a socioeconomic characterization of the current Duck Valley Indian population; and 4) establish better communication and cooperation between the Air Force and the Shoshone-Paiute.

  5. Research Methods Draft Report - 340 pp.
    SAIC Subcontract No. 14-960067-75
    SAIC Subproject No. 01-0203-34-3479-000 7209
    Date: May 14, 1995

    This volume contains a discussion of research methods employed in our proposed research. Ethnography and ethnohistory are described as types of anthropological information followed by a description of key research methods by which ethnographic and ethnohistoric research are conducted. In addition to consulting prior research, archival records, and oral tradition, there is a description of participant observation, key informants, and focus groups. There is also a beginning discussion of the need for confidentiality in our research and a tentative three-year schedule is prepared. An extensive bibliography is attached as are seven appendices containing supporting documents and other materials that further elucidate our research methods.

  6. Confidential Preliminary Draft Ethnographic Report: Duck Valley - 275 pp.
    SAIC Subcontract No. 14-960067-75
    SAIC Subproject No. 01-0203-34-3479-000 7209
    Date: August 1995

    This volume contains a draft of the results of our first ethnographic field research. It contains a brief description of interview methods and field work conditions and some of the confidentiality limitations imposed on our research by the Shoshone-Paiute. There is a brief sketch of the social structure of the Duck Valley Indian Reservation population followed by ethnographic survey information gathered for the four ethnographic survey areas. Our preliminary conclusions are presented here followed by nine supporting appendices that contain essential, supplementary information. Four maps are included plus a description of the types of culturally significant sites discovered through our preliminary research.

  7. Draft Final Ethnographic Report: Duck Valley - 300 pp.
    SAIC Subcontract No. 14-960067-75
    SAIC Subproject No. 01-0203-34-3479-000 7209
    Date: November 1995

    This volume contains our draft final ethnographic report for 1995, was completed in February of 1996 and repeats much of the information contained in our preliminary ethnographic report submitted in August of 1995, including the nine supporting appendices referenced above. It reflects the corrections and additions requested by both the Shoshone-Paiute and the SAIC, the contracting officer, plus various examples of culturally significant sites that qualify as Traditional Cultural Properties. This volume contains preliminary findings and recommendations of special interest to the Air Force concerning certain impacts of their uses of the Shoshone-Paiute homeland as a training area for the Air Combat Command. These and other impacts were detailed in our analysis of the Draft EIS (see D. below).

  8. Final Ethnographic Report: Duck Valley
    SAIC Subcontract No. 14-960067-75
    SAIC Subproject No. 01-0203-34-3479-000 7209
    Date: February 1996

    This deliverable incorporates both the Shoshone-Paiute and SAIC Contracting Officer comments and requests for deletions, additions, corrections, and clarifications.

  9. Revised Commentary on the Draft EIS for the ETI Proposal
    SAIC Subcontract No. 14-960067-75
    SAIC Subproject No. 01-0203-34-3479-000 7209
    Date: February 21, 1997

    This commentary on the Draft EIS for the ETI Proposal contains numerous specific, suggested deletions, additions, corrections, and clarifications. Our evaluation of the EIS was invited by Dr. Paul Green of the Air Force and reflects the objections to the EIS and the ETI by the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes. In some cases the Tribes' comments had not been included in the Draft EIS and recommendations for their inclusion in the EIS were submitted for inclusion in the final EIS.

  10. Five Traditional Cultural Properties
    SAIC Prime Contract No. DACA63-95-D0020-D014
    SAIC Subcontract No. 64-960048-41
    Date: (Revised) May 28, 1996

    As part of a research strategy we adopted to better enable the Shoshone-Paiute and Air Force to identify types of cultural and environmental impacts of Air Force activities on the Shoshone-Paiute, five Traditional Cultural Properties were identified for investigation. (Ten more Traditional Cultural Properties are investigated in a later report - see deliverable H below.) We followed the Federal guidelines for Traditional Cultural Properties which are defined in a National Register Bulletin, Bulletin # 38 "Guidelines for Evaluating Traditional Cultural Properties" by Patricia L. Parker and Thomas F. King published by the United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service Interagency Resources Division (1991). This bulletin describes Traditional Cultural Properties as follows:

    One kind of cultural significance a property may possess, and that may make it eligible for inclusion in the Register, is traditional cultural significance. "Traditional" in this context refers to those beliefs, customs, and practices of a living community of people that have been passed down through the generations, usually orally or through practice. The traditional cultural significance of a historic property, then, is significance derived from the role the property plays in a community's historically rooted beliefs, customs, and practices. Examples of properties possessing such significance include:

    • A location associated with the traditional beliefs of a Native American group about its origins, its cultural history, or the nature of the World;
    • A location where Native American religious practitioners have historically gone, and are known or thought to go today, to perform ceremonial activities in accordance with traditional cultural rules of practice; and
    • A location where a community has traditionally carried out economic, artistic, or other cultural practices important in maintaining its historic identity.

    A traditional cultural property is therefore, one that is eligible for inclusion in the National Register because of its association with cultural practices or beliefs of a living community that (a) are rooted in that community's history, and (b) are important in maintaining the continuing cultural identity of the community. Various kinds of traditional cultural properties will be discussed, illustrated, and related specifically to the National Register Criteria.

    Our description of these Traditional Cultural Properties provides adequate information for their nomination to the National Register of Historic Places, but the Shoshone-Paiute may not wish to have them nominated to the Register.

  11. Ethnobotanical and Ethnozoological Study in Southwestern Idaho for the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Indian Reservation: Draft Report
    Contract No. DACA63-95-D-0020-D014
    Subcontract No. 4500092273
    Date: January 20, 1998

    This deliverable was requested by both the Shoshone-Paiute and the Air Force in order to aid communication concerning the possible impacts of Air Combat Command activities on culturally significant plant and animal resources of the Shoshone-Paiute homeland. It provides examples of such plants and animals and describes Tribal cultural values and beliefs about them. It describes various culturally determined uses of these resources and their importance to the Tribes' way of life with an explanation of how the Shoshone-Paiute identify with and ceremonially use these resources in their religious life.

  12. Socioeconomic Model for the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Indian Reservation: Draft Report
    Contract No. DACA63-95-D-0020-D014
    Subcontract No. 4500092275
    Date: January 20, 1998

    This deliverable summarizes background environmental and historical factors concerning the Duck Valley Indian Reservation. It then focuses on the social structure, population, housing, and economy of the Shoshone-Paiute as well as that of surrounding Owyhee and Elko Counties. Seven appendices are included that contain statistical information derived from socioeconomic surveys of the population, census data, economic data, and other supporting sources of socioeconomic data.

  13. An Ethnographic Study of Selected Traditional Cultural Properties of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Indian Reservation: Draft Report
    Contract No. DACA63-95-D-0020
    Delivery Order No. 0014
    Date: January 20, 1998

    This separate deliverable deals with ten additional Traditional Cultural Properties located in the Shoshone-Paiute homeland. It was requested by the Air Force in order to better document the types of Shoshone-Paiute cultural properties that can be impacted by Air Force activities. (Please see Deliverable E. above for further information contained in our description of the first five Traditional Cultural Properties.)

  14. Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) Regarding the Curation and Use of Information from Ethnographic Studies Between the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes at the Duck Valley Indian Reservation and the United States Air Force, Represented by 366th Wing at Mountain Home Air Force Base (AFB)
    Prime Contract No. DACA63-95-D-0051,D.O.12
    Project Account No. 3-1762-1000-0001-2274
    Purchase Order No. 7-32-P2-315300
    Date: September 1998

    This memorandum of understanding is the product of several years of research, discussions, debate, and compromise between the Shoshone-Paiute and the Air Force. It is directed primarily toward long term project planning, the conduct of research, and the dissemination of sensitive/confidential information collected through research. It provides a basis for dealing with these issues as well as creates an atmosphere for future cooperation in research and other activities.